Software Engineering: Principles and Practice
Hans van Vliet

Third edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2008

Table of Contents


 
Foreword xvii
Preface xix
1 Introduction 1
1.1 What is Software Engineering? 5
1.2 Phases in the Development of Software 10
1.3 Maintenance or evolution 15
1.4 From the Trenches 17
1.4.1 Ariane 5, Flight 501 18
1.4.2 Therac-25 19
1.4.3 The London Ambulance Service 21
1.4.4 Who Counts the Votes 23
1.5 Software Engineering Ethics 24
1.6 Quo Vadis? 27
1.7 Summary 29
1.8 Further Reading 30
Exercises 31
Part I Software Management 35
2 Introduction to Software Engineering Management 37
2.1 Planning a Software Development Project 40
2.2 Controlling a Software Development Project 43
2.3 Summary 45
Exercises 46
3 The Software Life Cycle Revisited 49
3.1 The Waterfall Model 52
3.2 Agile Methods 54
3.2.1 Prototyping 56
3.2.3 Incremental Deveopment 60
3.2.4 Rapid Application Development and Dynamic Systems Development Method 62
3.2.5 Extreme Programming 66
3.3 The Rational Unified Process (RUP) 68
3.4 Model-Driven Architecture 71
3.5 Intermezzo: Maintenance or Evolution 72
3.6 Software Product Lines 75
3.7 Process Modeling 77
3.8 Summary 80
3.9 Further Reading 81
Exercises 82
4 Configuration Management 85
4.1 Tasks and Responsibilities 87
4.2 Configuration Management Plan 92
4.3 Summary 93
4.4 Further Reading 94
Exercises 94
5 People Management and Team Organization 97
5.1 People Management 99
5.1.1 Coordination Mechanisms 101
5.1.2 Management Styles 102
5.2 Team Organization 104
5.2.1 Hierarchical Organization 104
5.2.2 Matrix Organization 106
5.2.3 Chief Programmer Team 107
5.2.4 SWAT Team 107
5.2.5 Agile Team 108
5.2.6 Open Source Software Development 108
5.2.7 General Principles for Organizing a Team 111
5.3 Summary 112
5.4 Further Reading 113
Exercises 113
6 On Managing Software Quality 115
6.1 On Measures and Numbers 118
6.2 A Taxonomy of Quality Attributes 123
6.3 Perspectives on Quality 130
6.4 The Quality System 134
6.5 Software Quality Assurance 135
6.6 The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) 137
6.6.1 Personal Software Process 142
6.6.2 BOOTSTAP and SPICE 143
6.6.3 Some Critical Notes 143
6.7 Getting Started 144
6.8 Summary 147
6.9 Further Reading 148
Exercises 149
7 Cost Estimation 153
7.1 Algorithmic Models 158
7.1.1 Walston-Felix 160
7.1.2 COCOMO 162
7.1.3 Putnam 163
7.1.4 Function Point Analysis 165
7.1.5 COCOMO 2: Variations on a Theme 168
7.1.6 Use Case Points: Another Variation on a Theme 173
7.2 Guidelines for Estimating Cost 175
7.3 Distribution of Manpower over Time 179
7.4 Agile Cost Estimation 183
7.5 Summary 184
7.6 Further Reading 186
Exercises 187
8 Project Planning and Control 189
8.1 A Systems View of Project Control 190
8.2 A Taxonomy of Software Development Projects 192
8.2.1 Realization Control Situation 194
8.2.2 Allocation Control Situation 195
8.2.3 Design Control Situation 195
8.2.4 Exploration Control Situation 196
8.2.5 Summary of Control Situations 197
8.3 Risk Management 198
8.4 Techniques for Project Planning and Control 201
8.5 Summary 207
8.6 Further Reading 208
Exercises 208
Part II The Software Life Cycle 211
9 Requirements Engineering 213
9.1 Requirements Elicitation 220
9.1.1 Requirements Engineering Paradigms 224
9.1.2 Requirements Elicitation Techniques 226
9.1.3 Goals and Viewpoints 234
9.1.4 Prioritizing Requirements 237
9.1.5 COTS selection 239
9.1.6 Crowdsourcing 240
9.2 Requirements Documentation and Management 241
9.2.1 Requirements Specification 241
9.2.2 Requirements Management 247
9.3 Requirements Specification Techniques 249
9.3.1 Choosing a Notation 250
9.3.2 Specifying Non-Functional Requirements 252
9.4 Verification and Validation 253
9.5 Summary 254
9.6 Further Reading 255
Exercises 257
10 Modeling 261
10.1 Classic Modeling Techniques 263
10.1.1 Entity-Relationship Modeling 263
10.1.2 Finite State Machines 265
10.1.3 Data Flow Diagrams 267
10.1.4 CRC Cards 267
10.2 On Objects and Related Stuff 268
10.3 The Unified Modeling Language 274
10.3.1 The Class Diagram 276
10.3.2 The State Machine Diagram 279
10.3.3 The Sequence Diagram 283
10.3.4 The Communication Diagram 284
10.3.5 The Component Diagram 285
10.3.6 The Use Case 286
10.4 Summary 287
10.5 Further Reading 287
Exercises 288
11 Software Architecture 289
11.1 Software Architecture and the Software Life Cycle 293
11.2 Architecture Design 294
11.3 Architectural Views 298
11.4 Architectural Styles 303
11.5 Software Architecture Assessment 317
11.6 Summary 321
11.7 Further Reading 322
Exercises 322
12 Software Design 325
12.1 Design Considerations 329
12.1.1 Abstraction 330
12.1.2 Modularity 333
12.1.3 Information Hiding 336
12.1.4 Complexity 337
12.1.5 System Structure 344
12.1.6 Object-Oriented Metrics 348
12.2 Classical Design Methods 351
12.2.1 Functional Decomposition 353
12.2.2 Data Flow Design (SA/SD) 356
12.2.3 Design based on Data Structures 361
12.3 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Methods 369
12.3.1 The Booch Method 376
12.3.2 Fusion 377
12.3.3 RUP revisited 379
12.4 How to Select a Design Method 380
12.4.1 Design Method Classification 381
12.4.2 Object Orientation: Hype or the Answer 382
12.5 Design Patterns 385
12.6 Design Documentation 389
12.7 Verification and Validation 393
12.8 Summary 393
12.9 Further Reading 398
Exercises 399
13 Software Testing 405
13.1 Test Objectives 410
13.1.1 Test Adequacy Criteria 412
13.1.2 Fault Detection Versus Confidence Building 413
13.1.3 From Fault Detection to Fault Prevention 415
13.2 Testing and the Software Life Cycle 417
13.2.1 Requirements Engineering 417
13.2.2 Design 419
13.2.3 Implementation 420
13.2.4 Maintenance 420
13.2.5 Test-Driven Development (TDD) 421
13.3 Verification and Validation Planning and Documentation 422
13.4 Manual Test Techniques 425
13.4.1 Reading 425
13.4.2 Walkthroughs and Inspections 426
13.4.3 Correctness Proofs 428
13.4.4 Stepwise Abstraction 429
13.5 Coverage-Based Test Techniques 430
13.5.1 Control-Flow Coverage 431
13.5.2 Data Flow Coverage 433
13.5.3 Coverage-Based Testing of Requirements Specifications 435
13.6 Fault-Based Test Techniques 437
13.6.1 Fault Seeding 437
13.6.2 Mutation Testing 438
13.7 Error-Based Test Techniques 440
13.8 Comparison of Test Techniques 441
13.8.1 Comparison of Test Adequacy Criteria 442
13.8.2 Properties of Test Adequacy Criteria 443
13.8.3 Experimental Results 446
13.9 Test Stages 448
13.10 Estimating Software Reliability 450
13.11 Summary 457
13.12 Further Reading 458
Exercises 459
14 Software Maintenance 465
14.1 Maintenance Categories Revisited 468
14.2 Major Causes of Maintenance Problems 471
14.3 Reverse Engineering and Refactoring 475
14.3.1 Refactoring 478
14.3.2 Inherent Limitations 480
14.3.3 Tools 484
14.4 Software Evolution Revisited 486
14.5 Organizational and Managerial Issues 488
14.5.1 Organization of Maintenance Activities 488
14.5.2 Software Maintenance from a Service Perspective 492
14.5.3 Control of Maintenance Tasks 497
14.5.4 Quality Issues 500
14.6 Summary 501
14.7 Further Reading 502
Exercises 504
15 Software Tools 507
15.1 Toolkits 511
15.2 Language-Centered Environments 513
15.3 Integrated Environments and Workbenches 514
15.3.1 Analyst WorkBenches 515
15.3.2 Programmer WorkBenches 516
15.3.3 Management WorkBenches 520
15.3.4 Integrated Project Support Environments 520
15.4 Process-Centered Environments 521
15.5 Summary 522
15.6 Further Reading 524
Exercises 525
Part III Advanced Topics 527
16 User Interface Design 529
16.1 Where Is the User Interface? 532
16.2 What Is the User Interface? 536
16.3 Human Factors in Human-Computer Interaction 537
16.3.1 Humanities 537
16.3.2 Artistic Design 538
16.3.3 Ergonomics 539
16.4 The Role of Models in Human-Computer Interaction 540
16.4.1 A Model of Human Information Processing 542
16.4.2 Mental Models of Information Systems 544
16.4.3 Conceptual Models in User Interface Design 547
16.5 The Design of Interactive Systems 549
16.5.1 Design as an Activity Structure 550
16.5.2 Design as Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration 552
16.6 Task Analysis 553
16.6.1 Task Analysis in HCI Design 554
16.6.2 Analysis Approaches for Collaborative Work 556
16.6.3 Sources of Knowledge and Collection Methods 557
16.6.4 An Integrated Approach to Task Analysis: GTA 558
16.7 Specification of the User Interface Details 559
16.7.1 Dialog 560
16.7.2 Representation 561
16.8 Evaluation 562
16.8.1 Evaluation of Analysis Decisions 562
16.8.2 Evaluation of UVM Specifications 563
16.8.3 Evaluation of Prototypes 566
16.9 Summary 567
16.10 Further Reading 568
Exercises 569
17 Software Reusability 571
17.1 Reuse Dimensions 574
17.2 Reuse of Intermediate Products 576
17.2.1 Libraries of Software Components 576
17.2.2 Templates 580
17.2.3 Reuse of Architecture 581
17.2.4 Application Generators and Fourth-Generation Languages 581
17.3 Reuse and the Software Life Cycle 582
17.4 Reuse Tools and Techniques 585
17.4.1 From Module Interconnection Language to Architecture Description Language 586
17.4.2 Middleware 588
17.5 Perspectives of Software Reuse 591
17.6 Non-Technical Aspects of Software Reuse 594
17.6.1 Economics 596
17.6.2 Management 597
17.6.3 Psychology of Programmers 598
17.7 Summary 599
17.8 Further Reading 601
Exercises 601
18 Component-Based Software Engineering 605
18.1 Why Component-Based Software Engineering? 607
18.2 Component Models and Components 608
18.2.1 Component Forms in Component Models 610
18.2.2 Architecture and Component Models 614
18.3 Component-Based Development and Component Life Cycle 619
18.3.1 Component-Based System Development Process 620
18.3.2 Component Assessment 622
18.3.3 Component Development Process 623
18.4 Architectural Approaches in Component-Based Development 625
18.4.1 Architecture-Driven Component Development 626
18.4.2 Product-Line Development 626
18.4.3 COTS-Based Development 627
18.4.4 Selecting an Approach 627
18.5 Summary 628
18.6 Further Reading 628
Exercises 629
19 Service Orientation 631
19.1 Services, Service Descriptions, and Service Communication 634
19.2 Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) 639
19.3 Web Services 641
19.3.1 Extensible Markup Language (XML) 643
19.3.2 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) 644
19.3.3 Web Services Description Language (WSDL) 644
19.3.4 Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) 646
19.3.5 Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL4WS) 647
19.4 Service-Oriented Software Engineering 650
19.5 Summary 652
19.6 Further Reading 652
Exercises 653
20 Global Software Development 655
20.1 Challenges of Global System Development 657
20.2 How to Overcome Distance 664
20.2.1 Common Ground 664
20.2.2 Coupling of Work 666
20.2.3 Collaboration Readiness 666
20.2.4 Technology Readines 666
20.2.5 Organizing Work in Global Software Development 668
20.3 Summary 670
20.4 Further Reading 670
Exercises 671
Bibliography 673
Index 705