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* Directive 1999/93/EC of 13 December 1999 on a Community framework for electronic signatures, 21 January 2000. (pdf file 123-217 Kbytes)
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* Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, 24th October 1995.
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* COM(1998)297:Proposal of European Directive on electronic signatures, 13th May 1998.
On the basis that technology is developing at a fast pace, the proposal adopts a technology-neutral approach to the issue of electronic signatures, thus covering, for instance, digital signatures using asymmetric encryption or biometrics. The proposal stipulates inter alia that an electronic signature cannot be legally discriminated against solely on the grounds that it is in electronic form. Essential requirements for signature certificates and certification services are set as well as a ban on storing private signature keys. Minimum liability rules are established for service providers, and specifically the proposal establishes their liability with respect to the validity of a certificate's content.
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Last update 28st April 2000
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