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object-oriented programming


object-oriented programming

This chapter presented an overview of the issues involved in the design and software engineering of object-oriented software. The approach taken may be characterized as eclectic, in that various methods are referred to when illustrating design issues without commitment to a particular method or approach.

Development methods


slide: Section 3.1: Development methods

In section 1, we discussed perspectives of modeling and requirements engineering. We looked at the second-generation development method Fusion and made a comparative study of analysis and design methods. We then discussed the differences between functional and object-oriented development approaches.

Identifying objects


  • {\em object-oriented design} -- decomposition into objects
  • object model -- objects suffer and require
  • heuristics -- balance between nouns and verbs
  • evaluation -- eliminating spurious classes
  • class design -- class, responsibilities and collaborations

slide: Section 3.2: Identifying objects

In section 2, we discussed the issues that arise in defining an object model. We looked at heuristics for identifying objects, based on a linguistic analysis of the requirements document, and discussed the evaluation criteria that may be used for eliminating spurious classes. Also, the CRC method, which approaches class design by delineating responsibilities and collaborations, was illustrated with some examples.



  • types -- as an organizing principle
  • contracts -- obligations and benefits
  • subtyping -- the substitutability requirement
  • partial types -- designed to have subtypes

slide: Section 3.3: Contracts

The object model resulting from an initial exploration may be formalized by employing types. In section 3, we discussed the notion of contracts as a means to characterize the behavioral aspects of types, specifying the restrictions and obligations of an object and its clients. We also looked at the requirements for subtype refinement and the refinement of contractual obligations.

Towards a formal approach


  • contracts -- formal specification
  • verification -- as a design methodology
  • runtime consistency -- invariance

slide: Section 3.4: Towards a formal approach

Finally, in section 4, we reflected on the possible contribution of formal methods to the software engineering of object-oriented systems, and concluded that the notion of contracts may play an invaluable role, both as a design methodology and as a means to establish the runtime consistency of a system.

object-oriented programming


  1. Describe the Fusion method. How does Fusion compare with other methods of OO analysis and design?
  2. Give an outline of the steps required in object-oriented design. What heuristics can you think of for identifying objects?
  3. What criteria may be used to eliminate spurious classes from an initial object model?
  4. Explain the methods of CRC cards. Give an example.
  5. Explain how you may characterize the behavior of an object by means of a contract.
  6. What benefits may design by contract have for system developers? And for users?
  7. Give a detailed account of the issues that arise in refining a contract.
  8. How may contracts be employed to test object behavior?
  9. Discuss how a formal approach may contribute to OO software development.

object-oriented programming

Further reading

 [Fowler97] is not only a good introduction to UML, but contains also many useful insights on the process of object-oriented development. Additionally,  [Fowler97a] may be read as a source on analysis patterns, which are reusable elements of analysis and design. For more information on Fusion, consult  [Fusion]. As earlier references on object-oriented methods, I recommend  [Booch94],  [WWW90] and  [Rum91]. Also worthwhile are  [Henderson93] and  [Champeaux93]. An overview and comparative study of design representation methods is given in  [Webster].  [Meyer97] is the ultimate reference on contracts. A more comprehensive article on design by contract is  [Meyer92].

(C) Æliens 04/09/2009

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